27 окт. 2007 г.

The Dreyfus model of skills acquisition

  • Level 1, Novice - Focus is on immediate skill, getting it right

    Little or no previous experience. Basic understanding of what to do. Working from a small set of rules. No clear idea of what is important. Need step-by-step instructions. Each step has to be thought through. Need a controlled environment and close guidance.

  • Level 2, Advanced Beginner - starting to relate to other skills and situations

    Putting the task into perspective. Still works through the instructions and has difficulty troubleshooting problems. Focus remains on the task in hand. Picking up more subtle cues. Still requires close guidance.

  • Level 3, Competent - able to do the skill and relate it to the wider picture

    Begin to develop long-term plans and goals. Has developed a systematic approach which differs to suit the situation. Knows how the skill fits into the larger context. Information is generally reliable but may miss/misinterpret unexpected/complex issues. Still likely to do unneeded work. Supervision more towards what to do with the skills.

  • Level 4, Proficient - Accountable & intuitive. Immediately sees WHAT

    Skill is an integral part of the repertoire. Wants to understand the larger conceptual framework. Still refers to guidelines for where to go from here. Focuses on points that matter, little extraneous materials and information put in context. Working through implications of information whilst collecting it. The skill is embedded in other related skills (eg communications, physical examination) forming part of a wider picture. Learn from the experience of and guidelines developed by others.

  • Level 5, Expert - Immediately sees HOW

    Rapidly and accurately sums up the situation and seamless move to how to deal with it. Primary source of knowledge and information. Able to deal with far more complex cases than someone who is proficient. Little reference to guidelines (these are the people who write them) so they are applied automatically. Following the rules degrades performance. Exceptions to the rule are a challenge to be met requiring more conscious thought.

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